Improving departure procedures
Limiting the speed at a certain point in the departure route results in the fact that the thrust brought about by the engines results in a higher altitude rather than in greater speed. Consequently the aircraft climbs somewhat more steeply.
Introducing Continuous Climb Operations (still under development)
Normally departures take place in a stepwise pattern until cruise altitude has been reached. There are phases between these stepwise segments where aircraft fly higher horizontally, thus not gaining altitude. Continuous Climb Operations (CCO) are meant to bridge these level flight segments by a continuous climb.
More frequent Continuous Descent Operations
This procedure allows aircraft to descend from high altitudes almost without any horizontal flight phase, without intermediate thrust, and therefore also quieter.
Gliding angle of up to 3.2 degrees
Fraport AG acted as sponsor of this measure, which has been in use since October 18, 2012. Raising the approach angle from 3.0 to 3.2 degrees on the Runway Northwest became standard on December 19, 2014 after more than two years of testing this measure. The results of the test operation had been completely positive. Measurements made by the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR) during the entire test phase at seven noise measurement stations at Frankfurt Airport and at the Environmental Station (UNH) showed a reduction of the maximum noise level from 0.5 to 1,5 dB(A) depending on the site of the measurement station and the type of aircraft.
Raising the minimum downwind approach angle by 1,000 feet
On October 18,2012 the minimum flight altitude both on the Northern and on the Southern downwind legs were raised by 1,000 feet (approx. 300 meters).
Raising the altitude for starting final approach up to 5,000 feet
The altitude for aircraft coming from the South and turning to start final approach is raised from 4,000 to 5,000 feet (approx. a 300 meter difference). In the parallel independent operation the turning operations from the South must continue to be by 1,000 feet lower than from the North, thus 4,000 feet in the South and at least 5,000 feet in the North.
Lengthening the Instrument Landing System (under development)
It is envisaged to raise the altitude for approach flights turning to start final approach by 1,000 feet (300 meters). When turning from the North, this will be accomplished by gearing to the ILS approach light beacon at 6,000 feet and when turning from the South at 5,000 feet. In order to implement this measure, the range of the instrument landing system (ILS) needs to be expanded.
Introduction of a Ground Based Augmentation System (GBAS)
GBAS is a satellite-based precision landing aid that is additionally supported by a ground station. This technology considerably improves the accuracy of satellite navigation. Aircraft equipped with GBAS receivers may determine their own position so accurately that precision landings are possible without the need of an ILS. In the medium term the new landing system will also permit to raise the approach angle from 3.0 degrees to 3.2 degrees on Runway South and on Runway Center (25L/C and 07 R/C), a measure that had so far only been possible on Runway Northwest. In addition, the GBAS technology provides the possibility to use curved, segmented approach procedures without affecting capacity. Such procedures make it possible to direct arrivals around densely populated areas.
Steeper Approach procedures (under development)
In this procedure the approach flight is initiated from a relatively high altitude, at about 8,000 feet, (approx. 2,400 meters) using an angle of 4.49 degrees. Once approximately 2,000 feet (600 meters) have been reached, the light beacon of the instrument landing system (ILS) is geared to from above in a 3.0 or 3.2 angle.
Point Merge procedure (under development)
Point Merge is a novel method for sequencing arrival flows. Instead of using the current flight paths, arrivals are bundled into funnel-type structures and guided towards final approach. In theory this technique is to support continuous descent operations in higher altitudes for a longer span of time.
Modified Arrival Routes
By raising the minimum altitude of arrival sectors, approaches will be kept in higher flight altitudes for a longer period of time.